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KEY EVENTS IN MONOTYPE’S HISTORY: PEOPLE, TECHNOLOGY, TYPEFACES

1896 - 1906

©2003 AGFA MONOTYPE Monday January 12th, 2004, par Andréas Schweizer


1896 - First typeface issued by the Lanston Monotype Machine Company in the USA as Modern Condensed (Series 1).

1903 - First German font cut as Wittenberger Fraktur, Series 28 based on a design of the Schelter & Giesecke typefoundry.

Lanston Monotype Corporation Ltd. first took offices at 43 Fetter Lane, off Fleet Street in London: the site was destined to develop strong associations with fine printing. At the same time, the older offices at Drury Lane were vacated.

Government Printing Office in Washington D.C. placed initial order for mechanical composing equipment of 28 Monotype Casters and of 48 line-casters.

1896 - First typeface issued by the Lanston Monotype Machine Company in the USA as Modern Condensed (Series 1).

It was made for the Model C Keyboard which mirrored the layout of the die-case on the caster. That is, the narrow characters occupied designated rows, as did the wider characters. Effectively the character widths allocated were imposed uniformly on all early designs. To do otherwise would have meant a different keyboard layout for each typeface. Such a constriction was not overcome until 1908 with the Model D Keyboard.

Lanston awarded the Cresson Gold Medal for original invention by the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia.

1897 - Justification wedge added to the Monotype Caster allowing lines to be spread across a measure by expansion of inter-word spaces only and not by letterspacing as earlier.

Running short of financial resources, J. Maury Dove and Harold M. Duncan of the Lanston Monotype Machine Company determined to raise money by accompanying four of the Limited Fount Machines to London. On the Atlantic crossing, the two Americans encountered Lord Dunraven, who bought the British and Colonial (except Canada) patent rights to the Monotype system for £220,000: the equivalent of one million dollars. It enabled William Sellers & Co. to continue efforts to improve the caster.

Lanston Monotype Corporation Ltd. formed in December with a capital of £550,000 under the Chairmanship of Lord Dunraven and with offices at 42 Drury Lane in London. Earlier in the year during June, a small suite of offices had been occupied in Leadenhall Street by the Monotype Machine (British Patents) Syndicate Ltd. for the purposes of demonstrating and testing the system and of attracting capital. The syndicate had been formed with a capital of £30,000.

Linotype Company established a factory at Altrincham in the north-west of England.

1898 - First of the Limited Fount Monotype machines delivered to Gibson Brothers in Washington D.C. and to Wyman & Sons Ltd. in London.

F. Hedley Peck appointed Managing Director of the Lanston Monotype Corporation Ltd. He resigned in 1900 to make way for Harold M. Duncan, but retained his seat on the Board until death in 1904.

1899 - John Sellers Bancroft, a gifted engineer with William Sellers & Co., re-designed the Monotype Caster and restored the complement of characters to that originally intended by Lanston of 225. At the same time a new keyboard was prepared by the Taft-Pierce Manufacturing Company which operated pneumatically, instead of mechanically as previously. Earlier William Sellers & Co. had been awarded a second contract for building a batch of fifty machines of the revised design. It signalled the beginning of the settled and feted Monotype hot-metal composing machines.

The Lanston Monotype Corporation Ltd. started construction of a factory on a green field site at Salfords near Redhill. Two buildings were initially erected and finished in 1900 to enable the testing, adjusting, and repairing of Monotype machines arriving from the USA, as well as permitting the manufacture of certain component parts.

Frank H. Pierpont appointed Works Manager at Salfords. He was enticed to join from the Typograph Gesellschaft in Germany where he served as Managing Director. Two assistants came with him: Frank and William Demming, the former as Tool Room Manager and the latter as Plant Engineer. Another migrant, from the same source, was Fritz Steltzer who managed the Type Drawing Office with distinction.

1900 - The first typeface issued by the Lanston Monotype Corporation Ltd. as Modern (Series 1) based on a design by the Miller & Richard typefoundry.

Some £50,000 spent on plant for the new factory at Salfords, including a battery of Benton-Waldo punch-cutting machines as part of the matrix-making process.

Initial installation of Monotype composing machines redesigned by Bancroft at Cassell & Co. Ltd. in London.

Harold M. Duncan appointed Managing Director of the Lanston Monotype Corporation Ltd.

Beatrice Warde born on 20 September.

First Monotype School established at the London office in Drury Lane. It offered evening classes for aspiring keyboard operators (usually hand compositors) and caster attendants. Billy Wigg was the principal instructor.

Lanston Monotype Machine Company moved from Washington to Philadelphia occupying the Thorn Building at 13th Street and Callowhill. Initially only moulds and matrices were manufactured internally, the rest of the work being contracted out to external suppliers.

1901 - Several Monotype systems installed in notable British printing plants, such as Butler & Tanner Ltd. of Frome, Morrison & Gibb Ltd. of Edinburgh, and Waterlow & Sons Ltd. of London.

1902 - All Monotype machine moulds made in the UK at the Salfords plant: the work tolerances were exceedingly fine (0.0001-inch).

First issue of the Monotype Recorder, an external house magazine that was to become distinguished under the editorship of Beatrice Warde, both in terms of design and of the authoritative and original typographic articles published.

John Sellers Bancroft joined the Lanston Monotype Machine Company as Chief Mechanical Engineer.

Sol Hess employed as the first type designer by the Lanston Monotype Machine Company.

1903 - First Irish font cut as Gaelic, Series 24.

Negotiations began for the British company to secure marketing rights of Monotype machines in Europe and other parts of the world in addition to the UK and its colonies, except for North and South America and Canada. By 1904 the agreement was settled.

1905 - Display type attachment and speed regulator developed for the Monotype Caster enabling loose type in sizes up to 24 point to be produced for laying in case, though only composed mechanically up to 12 point.

Lanston Monotype Machine Company began making entire machines in Philadelphia.

Government Printing Office in Washington expanded Monotype machine installation by a further 72 casters bringing the total to 100 machines. No additions were made to the line-casting equipment. It brought forth allegations of corruption by the Mergenthaler Linotype Company which were deemed to be groundless a few months later by a public enquiry.

One of the many early machine agencies taken on by the Lanston Monotype Corporation Ltd. for the Boston wire stitcher: the association lasted for 83 years. Eventually the company manufactured the machines.

Lanston Monotype Machine Company began to manufacture entire machines without any reliance on outwork.

1906 - Monotype factory at Salfords was publicized as making moulds, matrices, repair parts, and slitting and punching paper for keyboard spools.

Monotype registered as a trademark in the USA.

Government Printing Office in Washington ordered an additional dozen Monotype Casters.

Ludlow Typograph Company formed.


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Dans la même rubrique :
1954 - 1959
1917 - 1925
1907 - 1916
1942 - 1953
1934 - 1941
1844 - 1894
1960 - 1970
1926 - 1933



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